Problem Statement Research Proposal

Published: 2021-06-22 00:48:48
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Introduction
Bullying in schools is not a new phenomenon but is an activity that has been in existence for ages. A good proportion of students and adults have accounts of their experiences with bullying or have witnessed their peers bullied in what a turned out to be a serious problem in the society with variant detrimental effects that range from emotional effects to negative effects on a student’s academic performance. Teens between the age of 13 and 19 year are perhaps the greatest users of the technology, particularly the internet. The National Crime Prevention Council (2007) contends that teens between the age of 13 and 17 are the greatest users of the internet, instant messaging, text messaging and talking with the help cell phones which they access at home, at school, friends houses, public libraries and wifi sites warranting them to be termed as the “an online population. On several occasions, students in the 13 to 19 age bracket fall victim of bullying involves the use of the afore mentioned devices to harass, humiliate, stalk, threaten and hassle other unsuspecting users through, for instance, the sending of threatening text massages and emails in what has risen to be called Cyber Bullying.
The National Crime Prevention Council reports that while close to 80% of teens admit having used the internet for three years or more, over 80 percent say that they used the internet “yesterday” with another close to 30 percent admitting that they used the internet for close one hour “yesterday” (The National Crime Prevention Council, 2007). Apparently, even as parents strive to keep track of the sites that their teenage children visit as well as the people that people that their children call, a good percentage of teenager admit their parents really do not know the sites they visit as well as the people they interact with online and through the phone. Assertively, more than 40% of teenagers admit having experienced cyber bullying at one point in time with more females than males reportedly being the most targeted group. The Cyber bullying research organization documents that more 20% of teenagers have experienced cyber bullying in their lifetime. In a survey that targeted over 4000 high school students from a large district school in Southern United States, it was evinced that female students besides being more likely to report cyber bullying others, are the most likely targets of cyber bullying than their male counterparts.
Rationale for the Research
This study intends to explore cyber bullying among school going teenagers aged between 13 and 19 years old. The study besides seeking to understand how teenagers in this age bracket define cyber bullying, also aims at understanding the degree to which teenagers have either fallen victims of or participated in cyber-bullying. Further, the study will strive to unravel any likely link between the preponderance of cyber bullying and age.
Statement of the Research Objectives
The purpose of this study is to;
Determine the proportion of teenagers aged between the age of 13 and 19 that have fallen victims of cyber bullying
Hypothesis
In this study, it is hypothesized that more than 10 % teens in the 13-19 age bracket have fallen victims of cyber bullying with a slightly lower proportion admitting to have participated in cyber bullying. Further, besides being theorized that students in this aged group who have participated in traditional bullying are more likely to participate in cyber bullying, it is also theorized that female students, perhaps because of their soft nature and limited knowledge in the use of technology compared to their male counterparts, are the most common targets of cyber bullying than male students. The existence of a link between cyber bullying and age is also conjectured in this study; for instance, cyber bullying is more common with a particular age in the study age group more than the other.
Definition of Terms:
Cyber bullying: In this research, Cyber bullying is taken to mean a willful act of harming others through the use of computers, cell phones and other electronic devices that is often done repeatedly
Teens: For the purpose of this research, the word teen been be defined as people on the age bracket of 13-19 years old.
Effect: Just like Teen, Effect in this research is taken to mean the feeling that emanates in a victim of cyber bullying after an act of cyber bullying, either once or repeatedly.
Experience: The term experience is used interchangeably in this proposal and is taken to mean the same as effect; “feeling that emanates in a victim of cyber bullying after an act of cyber bullying, either once or repeatedly”
Mixed method design: The term is used to imply to a research design that is a hybrid of both qualitative and quantitative research designs.
Literature Review
Reportedly, it is the definition of cyber bullying that has always formed the building block of researches on cyber bullying. The definition of cyber bullying as used in this research is the willful and repeated use of technology to harm other users of technological devices such as the computer and the mobile phone.
The National Crime Prevention Council (2007) in a research that aimed at exploring teens experiences with cyber bullying, reactions of teens to cyber bullying, teen opinions on the possible amelioration strategies for preventing cyber bullying and teens perceived meaning of cyber bullying found, while the cell phone is the most common device used by teens for communications, a significant proportion of teens between the age of 13 and 17 are in constant use of the internet. The research findings also echoed previous research findings that cyber bullying has variant effects that range from embarrassment, emotional breakdown and indifference. The National Crime Prevention Council will be of profound importance to this proposed research as it will provide a ground on which the findings of the proposed will be compared in an attempt to ascertain the reliability of the findings.
Tokunaga (2009) in a research titled Following You from School; A Critical Review of Research on Cyber Bullying Victimization asserts that the use of internet by children and teens is increasing by the day and by the time of the study, over 66% of fourth to ninth graders. Tokunaga (2009) conducts a meta-synthesis of several literatures on the basis of what the literature says about the prevalence of cyber bullying among teens, the role of age and gender in cyber bullying victimization, the effects (which he calls disturbances) of cyber bullying as well as the strategies suggested for dealing with cyber bullying. As reported by Tokunaga (2009), it be easily generalized that cyber bullying targets more females than males, it cannot be easily generalized that cyber bullying targets people of a specific age more than others since much of the researches sample participants indiscriminate of their ages. The meta-synthesis by Tokunaga (2009) will be of much pertinence to this proposed research as it enable the research findings be viewed against several similar researches meta-synthesized into one. Again, the assertion by Tokunaga that most researches do not give insight on the possible relationship between age and cyber bullying validates the essence of the proposed research.
The prevalence of cyber bullying according to Tokunaga (2009) is between 20-40% though there are some studies that have found the value to be over 70%. The National Crime Prevention Council found out that prevalence of cyber bullying is about 20% (as initially highlighted. On their part, Hoff and Mitchell (2008) in a study that aimed at finding out the causes, effects and remedies for cyber bullying targeting more than 300 students found out that more than 56% of the surveyed students had at one point suffered from cyber bullying. Li (2006) also echoes Hoff and Mitchell (2008) findings that more than 50% of students, in which female students make the largest percentage, have at one point in time fallen victims of cyber bullying.
Further, Englander, Mills and McCoy (2009) found that cyber bullying is more common in high schools compared to collages. The researchers also noted that the cyber bullying was more common with certain age groups more than others; a research finding that gives insight to the possible link that exists between age and cyber bullying.
Admittedly, the topic of cyber bullying has received very limited attention in the US compared to other countries like Australia and Europe and as Haynie et al. (2001) assert, there is a considerable variability in the prevalence of cyber bullying among countries though much of the studies have been done in Europe, Netherlands and Australia. Nansel et al. (2001) admit that very little is known about cyber bullying in the US compared to other countries though there is a plethora of studies on cyber bullying that have been conducted in Europe and Australia.
Methodology
In order to explore cyber-bullying among students aged 13-19 years, understand teens’ emotional and behavioral reactions to cyber-bullying, determine how teens define cyber-bullying and increase the understanding of the degree to which teenagers have either been victims of or participated in cyber-bullying, a mixed method approach will be used in the study. The approach mixes both qualitative and quantitative collection and data analysis techniques. A combination of the two approaches will create a more complete picture of the problem other than when they stand alone (Creswell, 2008). The design will allow the views of participants to be effectively analyzed to determine their experiences, opinions on the problem and how cyber-bullying menace can be effectively addressed.
Cresswell (2008) documents that, the mixed approach allows for the simultaneous collection of both quantitative and qualitative data, merging the data and using the results to understand the problem. Quantitative research aims at supporting or contesting an existing hypothesis, and the data are often numerical and measurable, (Salkind, 2009). Instruments such as questionnaires collect data from a number of individuals which is often representative of a large population. Analysis is also numerical and is often reached at via statistical procedures with the key intention of either rejecting or failing to reject the hypothesis. In this study, the qualitative approach will seek to identify participants’ opinions and experiences on cyber-bullying. A small sample size will provide in-depth information on every participant and their views. Combining qualitative and quantitative approach will provide a better understanding of Cyber-bullying among students aged 13-19 years. The quantitative approach will allow for a critical description of cyber-bullying which is essential in establishing the awareness of participants in the research as well as provoking action among them.
Analyzing the advantages of the mixed method design, Hesse-Biber & Leavy (2010), documents that both approaches can balance the weaknesses of one of them, besides researchers are able to utilize all the available data collection tools rather than relying on either quantitative or qualitative research. Besides, questions that could not be answered by only qualitative or quantitative approach alone can be answered, multiple world view paradigms employed, and problems can be solved using both inductive and deductive thinking and numbers hence the approach is inherently practical. The value of mixed methods design for this study will be to discover the opinions, views and experiences of cyber-bullying as well as to determine the extent of the issue among school going teenagers aged between thirteen and nineteen years
Participants
The research proposes to explore cyber-bullying among school going teenagers aged 13-19; hence the participants will be comprised of students between the ages from four different accessible high schools. The researcher will contact 15 high schools to determine which ones are open for research to be conducted. Mixed methods research allows for participants to be the same for both qualitative and quantitative collection so that data can be easily compared or converged. It is, however, inconceivable to carry out large scale mixed methods design due to time constraints and researcher experience. Fifty students between the ages 13-19 will be selected from each school to give a snap shot of opinions on the issue of cyber-bullying as pertains to young people and social networking sites. A total of two hundred students from four different high schools will make up the sample for the questionnaire stage of the study. The sample will consist of both male and female participants who will be categorized into two groups; those between thirteen to fifteen years and those between sixteen and nineteen years. All the selected participants will be expected to fill in the questionnaire and the sample will consist of an equal number of males and females. There will be thirty females and thirty males for those between thirteen and eighteen years and seventy males and seventy females for those between ages 16 and nineteen. The students will be expected to voluntarily participate in the focus group. The focus group allows for the interaction of the teenagers on the conversation topic and also present their individual values with regards to cyber-bullying, (Vandebosch and Cleemput, 2008).
Research Design
The research will be implemented in two stages; the first stage will involve the use of an online questionnaire to generate quantitative data. The questionnaires will focus on how the internet and the social networking sites are used by students when in school and home, the opinions of the selected teenagers on cyber-bullying and the extent of the practice. The questionnaires will also allow participants to write comments and any other relevant opinions that may expand on questions with regards to cyber-bullying. The experiences will be ones that they may have either witnessed or been personally involved in. The questionnaire will be designed in such a way that data generated from the participants will focus on their use of the internet and the social networking sites, their personal experiences on bullying and cyber-bullying, the experiences of their peers or any other person they know of bullying and cyber-bullying and their general opinions on cyber-bullying. The second stage of the research will entail the engagement of the focus group who will provide data solely for qualitative analysis. The focus group will provide further insight into the questions in the survey and their opinions on the issues of cyber-bullying will be looked at. The focus group will be structured as an open ended discussion thereby allowing for further discussion.
Instrumentation and Data Collection Plans
A questionnaire will be a valuable instrument in the study. According to Kothari (2005), a questionnaire provides a way to explore and discover factual information that entails measures of values, experiences, opinions, beliefs and attitudes. They are also simple and less time consuming hence allowing for quick responses, besides collation of questionnaire data is both manageable and efficient. The focus group will be a beneficial and a significant instrument in the study. According to Hesse-Biber & Leavy (2010), focus groups create an opportunity for participants to express their motives, experiences, perceptions and their views on a specific topic. The research will also be designed to ensure anonymity, safety and well-being of all participants. The questionnaire will be anonymous, and the subjects confidential besides, informed consent will be obtained from the school authority. The consent for the questionnaire participants will be implied by voluntary participation, the questionnaire will be concise taking approximately fifteen minutes to complete ensuring greater willingness to participate. In the second section, the focus group will be comprised of twenty teenagers, ten females and ten males from each of the four institutions who will be engaged a discussion to provide further insight on the survey questions on cyber-bullying. The researcher will take notes on the responses of the discussion which will focus on various themes around cyber-bullying.
Proposed Analysis of the Data
Expected data will be from the results of both the questionnaires and the focus group discussion which will be categorized into three key sections, experiences, opinions and discussion. As noted above, the participants will be classified into two groups, the first group will be teenagers between 13 and 15 (n=60) while the second group will be between ages 16 and 19 (n=140). The results will focus on analyzing experiences and opinions. The opinions will aim to discover participant’s use of the internet, and to provide a point of comparison between internet use and cyber bullying. The participants will be expected to report their internet use both at home and at school besides specifying the actual kind of internet use. The participant’s current status and opinions on social networking will also be analyzed, and the result will seek to establish whether there is a difference in access to and involvement in social networking sites between the two age groups 13-15 and 16-19. Results of the reasons for social networking such as to communicate with friends, to share photos and videos, to make new friends, to reconnect with old friends and to download music will also be analyzed.
The results will also seek to analyze the proportion of participant’s involvement in traditional bullying, their experiences, whether they were bullied or not, whether they bullied others and whether there is a link between victimization and bullying and their correspondence with age. The results will also establish which percentage of the participants had been bullied through cell phones, and those who have been bullied through social network sites. The results will also distinguish whether there was a link between age and the likelihood of bullying besides, the researcher will be interested in establishing whether the participants knew someone else who had been a victim of cyber-bullying either through a social networking site or through a cell phone. The results will also seek to indicate whether the participants know more incidents of victimization comparative to personally being a victim and the relationship between the victim and the participant, whether a friend, a family member, a brother or just an acquaintance. Establishing how the participants or their acquaintances have been bullying will be practical in determining forms or combination of cyber-bullying behavior although expected results would include text messages or online social networking forums.
The results will also be specifically looking at how a cyber-bullying incident was handled or stopped, whether the victims of cyber-bullying reported the case to the social network provider, parents, school authorities or sought advice to ensure the bullying ceased.
Ensuring that the data are authentic will be a key priority in the overall design of the study. Creswell (2008) identifies content validity which is the extent to which the questions on the questionnaire are representative of all the possible questions that the researcher could possible ask on the subject. To ensure validity, a pilot study will be conducted before the actual administration of the questionnaire so as to reinforce the clarity and structure of the questionnaire, provide feedback and possibly come up with additional questions on the issue. The researcher will also analyze the proportion of participants who have Cyber bullied other students, and also to establish whether and how their victims acted to stop the bullying. The descriptions by participants of cyber-bullying experiences, both from those who have been bullied and those who have bullied their counterparts, will allow the researcher to adequately comprehend the nature of cyber-bullying.
Opinions on statements concerning traditional bullying, cyber-bullying, and bullying involving cell phones and social networking sites will be rated on a scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The statements, will also be categorized by gender will include; strongly agree (1), agree (1), Not Sure (5), Disagree (4) and Strongly Disagree (5). The mean and standard deviation for each category of opinions will also be determined. The researcher will also look for whether there is a difference on the participant’s opinions with regards to cyber-bullying for boys and girls. Research by Keith and Martin (2005) indicated that while boys were more likely to be bullied traditionally, cyber-bullying was likely to victimize both boys and girls although cyber-bullying was considered greater problems for girls while traditional bullying, a problem for boys. The participants’ responses will also be analyzed to identify the age group in which cyber-bullying mostly occur. Questionnaire comments from the comments sections will also seek to identify common themes from their responses. Finally, the focus group data results will be to supplement the questionnaires and the responses will be analyzed based on five themes: That cyber-bullying is different from traditional bullying, that the internet and cell phones make it easier for bullies, that there are long term effects of cyber-bullying, that cyber bulling is a complex phenomena that needs to be stopped and that cyber-bullying techniques are similar and can be identified. Conclusively, the results will be analyzed, and comparisons made based on the questionnaire responses and comments and the focus group discussion.
Implications and Limitations:
Assumptions
A number of assumptions are made in the study to enable the selection of a rational sample representative of the underlying population. Key assumptions include; the sample size selected for this study will sufficiently represent the entire student population in American high schools. Additionally, it is assumed that the instrument used in the qualitative research, the questionnaire has validity and measures the desired constructs. It is also assumed that the respondents will be overly truthful in answering the survey questions and that their actual accounts of cyber bullying will constitute both witnessed and observed experiences.
With regards to validity and the questionnaire’s ability to measure the desired variables, it will be assumed that the response alternative between the two groups (13-15 and 16-19) are mutually exclusive, that the questions are able to accommodate all possible answers, are phrased neutrally, do not have prestige bias, and do not in any way make the respondents feel guilty. It will also be assumed that the mode of administration, the questionnaire, ensures that the respondents answer all the questions.
It has always been alleged that the qualitative approach to research might not always lead to valid and reliable results. The critics of qualitative approach pinpoint that authors of secondary sources may at times report erroneous information rendering the corpus of such literature staggeringly unreliable (Wrenn, 2007; Kent, 1993). Additionally, even though the questionnaires will be designed diligently, it is still acknowledgeable that their no standard reference point against which the questions can be viewed in an attempt to define their validity and reliability. As Kasi (2009) writes, wrong questions and language may have adverse effects on the validity of a research project. Again, it cannot be decisively avowed that the sample size picked for the study will be the exact representation of the entire high school population that is directly affected by cyber bullying. Most importantly, since the research will not be replicated, the reliability of the research findings cannot be assured; Reliability of a study is the ability of the study to produce the same results is repeated (McFarland & Kim, 2006
Time Schedule/Time Line
The study will be designed to look at how High School students view cyber bullying with special focus on networking with the intent of discovering their opinions on the problem and how it can be effectively addressed. The research will, therefore, have multiple sub sections since the mixed methods approach will allow for the collection, analysis and integration of both quantitative and qualitative data within a single study.
Data Analysis
Statistical Software to analyze data which will be critical in formulating conclusions beyond the descriptive statistics collected from both the questionnaires and the focus group discussions.
Cyber bullying related documentary films to be shown to the focus group
Notebooks for the researcher and the members of the focus group
Pens for the members of the focus group and the researcher
Laptop computer for the researcher
Video player for showing the documentary films
Printer
LCD Projector
Reserved space for conducting the focus group study
Newspaper Articles
Television Documentaries
Movie Clips
SPSS Software
Personnel
A Note taker will be needed to help record data and check the responses of individuals at the end of the interview during the focus group stage of the research. The note taker will also be instrumental in recording information that the tape recorder is unable to record such as facial expressions and emotions of the respondents. This will make data analysis less complicated since the researcher will be able to separate the data into themes.
Budget
The budgetary estimates are summarized below:
Item/Activity
Quantity or Duration
Estimated Cost
Laptop computer for the researcher
Television Documentaries
Movie Clips
Free from You-Tube
Space Reservation
1 Day
$100.00
LCD Projectors (Hire)
2 Days
Video player for showing the documentary films (Hire)
1 Day
$37.97
Pens for the members of the focus group and the researcher
Note taker’s salary (1 Day)
N/A
$100
Incentives for the Focus group
Notebooks for the researcher and the members of the focus group
SPSS Software (Graduate Pack 15.0 for Windows)
N/A
$159.00
Contacting potential respondents (In person, telephone, mail, email)
N/A
$300
Administering Questions (Written and Electronic)
N/A
$499
Travel and Accommodation Expenses (Generalized)
A large proportion of the budget will be privately funded although financial constraints might arise which may delay the overall research process.
Needed Assurances/Clearances
Prior to carrying out the research, a voluntary consent form and information sheet that provides all the participants with the details of the research will be provided. The key information that will be incorporated in the information sheet will include; the aims of the research, what cyber bullying is and the reasons for research needs, the particulars of the researcher and why the students will be needed to participate. The information sheet will also describe the two stages of the research proposal including the use of the questionnaire and the focus group, how long the study will take, the confidentiality clause and clear directions that they are free to choose whether to participate or not and that they can withdraw at will. What will happen to the collected information in writing the final report and that all personal information shall not be included will also be noted. A sample consent form useful in the study will be designed as follows:
Participant’s Consent Form
I have comprehensively read and understood the data provided in the information sheet explaining the proposed study. I was presented with the opportunity to seek clarification, ask questions and have questions answered to my satisfaction. I also understand that I am at liberty to withdraw at any point of the study and nullify any information that I have provided without giving any reasons.
I understand that the researcher will be confidential with any information I voluntary share and that only the researcher and other participants during the focus group may have access to any information I give. I acknowledge that the information is being collected to investigate the opinions of high school teenagers on the issue of Cyber-bullying.
I also understand that I am under no obligation to provide any information relating to personal experiences, although opinions will be valuable.
Kindly tick the boxes below to indicate what you agree to and would like in this research.
□ I agree to participate in the questionnaire survey
□ I agree to participate in the Focus group
□ I understand that the information will not be shared with others outside the focus group
□ I understand that the information provided will be used to write a report
□ I understand that other than the researcher and the supervisor, no one else will hear the recordings of the focus group
Name of participant_________________________________________
Sign____________________________________________________
Date____________________________________________________
Researcher: Sign_____________________________________________
The Questionnaire to be used in the Study
Thank you for agreeing to participate in the research. By answering the following questions, you have the opportunity to share your opinions and experiences on cyber bullying and the use of social networking sites. Since you are still in school, you may have experiences of cyber-bullying through networking sites. Kindly note that all questions will be anonymous, and neither myself nor the supervisor will be able to identify you:
1. What is your age?
□ 13-15 Years
□ 16-19 Years
2. What is your Gender?
□ Male
□ Female
3. Do you have access to the Internet when at home?
□Yes
□ No
4. Do you use the internet at school for personal use?
□ Yes
□ No
5. Do you have access to the internet at a community center?
□ Yes
□ No
6. What specific personal activity do you use the internet for at school?
□ Sending Emails
□ Downloading videos/pictures
□Talking to Friend
□ Other (Please Specify) _________________________________________________
7. What personal activity do you use the internet for at home?
□ Sending Emails
□ Downloading videos/pictures
□Talking to Friend
□ Other (Please Specify) _________________________________________________
6. What do you use the internet most at home?
□ Sending Emails
□ Downloading videos/pictures
□Talking to Friend
□ Other (Please Specify) _________________________________________________
10. Presently, are you a member of any social networking site such as Twitter or Facebook?
□ Yes
□ No
11. What do you use social networking sites for? (You can tick more than one box)
□ To reconnect with old friends
□ To share photos and videos
□ To make new friends
□ To download music
□ To chat/communicate with friends
□ Other (Please specify) ______________________________________________________
12. Where do you mostly access the social networking sites that you use?
□ From school
□From home
□From the public library
□From the community center
□ From Cyber Café
□ Other (Please Specify) __________________________________________________________
13. Do you know a member of your school who is a member of a social networking site?
□ Yes
□ No
14. What is their age group?”
15. What do you think they use the social networking sites for? (You can tick more than one box)
□ To reconnect with old friends
□ To share photos and videos
□ To make new friends
□ To download music
□ To chat/communicate with friends
□ Other (Please specify) ______________________________________________________
16. Have you ever been a victim of traditional bullying when at school?
□ Yes
□ No
17. When were you bullied? (You can tick more than one box)
□ Elementary School
□ Middle School
□ Senior High School
18. Have you ever traditionally bullied someone at when you are at school?
□ Yes
□ No
19. When did you engage in bullying?
□ Elementary School
□ Middle School
□ Senior High School
20. Have you ever been a victim of cyber-bullying either through a social networking site or a cell phone when you were at school?
□ Yes, only through a social networking site
□ Yes, only by cell phone
□ Yes by both cell phone and social networking site
□No (Please go to question 22)
21. When were you cyber bullied? (You can tick more than one box)
□ Elementary School
□ Middle School
□ Senior High School
22. Do you know anyone else who has been a victim of cyber bullying either through a social networking site or a cell phone when they are at school?
□ Yes, only through a social networking site
□ Yes, only by cell phone
□ Yes by both cell phone and social networking site
□ No
23. How is that person related to you?
□ School mate
□ Sister
□ Brother
□ Friend
□ I heard from others
24. What is their gender?
□ Female
□ Male
25. What is their age group?
□ Not in the specified age brackets
26. Can you describe briefly how this person was cyber bullied and if any steps were taken to stop it
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
27. Have you ever bullied someone either through a social networking site or a cell phone when they are at school?
□ Yes, only through a social networking site
□ Yes, only by cell phone
□ Yes by both cell phone and social networking site
□ No
28. When did you engage in bullying? (You can tick more than one box)
□ Elementary School
□ Middle School
□ Senior High School
29. Do you know anyone else who has bullied another person either through a social networking site or a cell phone when they are at school?
□ Yes, only through a social networking site
□ Yes, only by cell phone
□ Yes by both cell phone and social networking site
□ No
30. What is their gender?
□ Female
□ Male
31. When did they engage in bullying? (You can tick more than one box)
□ Elementary School
□ Middle School
□ Senior High School
32. Can you described briefly how this person cyber bullied another person and if any steps were taken to stop it
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Tick your opinions on the following questions”
33. Cyber bullying is a problem facing girls:
□ Strongly Agree
□ Agree
□ Not Sure
□ Disagree
□ Strongly Disagree
34. Traditional bullying is a problem facing girls:
□ Strongly Agree
□ Agree
□ Not Sure
□ Disagree
□ Strongly Disagree
35. Cyber bullying is a problem facing boys:
□ Strongly Agree
□ Agree
□ Not Sure
□ Disagree
□ Strongly Disagree
36. Traditional bullying is a problem facing boys:
□ Strongly Agree
□ Agree
□ Not Sure
□ Disagree
□ Strongly Disagree
37. Bullying on social networking sites is a problem among boys:
□ Strongly Agree
□ Agree
□ Not Sure
□ Disagree
□ Strongly Disagree
38. Bullying on social cell phones is a problem among boys:
□ Strongly Agree
□ Agree
□ Not Sure
□ Disagree
□ Strongly Disagree
39. Bullying on social networking sites is a problem among girls:
□ Strongly Agree
□ Agree
□ Not Sure
□ Disagree
□ Strongly Disagree
40. Bullying on social networking sites is a problem among girls:
□ Strongly Agree
□ Agree
□ Not Sure
□ Disagree
□ Strongly Disagree
41. What advice can you give someone who has been cyber bullied?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
42. If you have any additional comments on cyber-bullying, kindly feel free to note them in the space provided below:
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
References
List a minimum of five references used for the Literature Review of this Research Proposal. Follow APA guidelines regarding use of references in text and in the references page. Only references cited in the text are to be inc
Englander, E., Mills, E. & McCoy, M. (2009). Cyber Bullying and information exposure: user-generated content in post-secondary education. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 46(2): 213-230.
Haynie, D. L., Nansel, T., Eitel, P., Crup, A, D., Saylor, K. Yu, K., & Simons-Morton, B. (2001). Bullies, Victims and Bully/Victims: Distinct Groups of at-risk Youths. Journal of Early Adolescence, 21(1), 29-49.
Hesse-Biber, S. N., & Leavy, P. (2010). Handbook of emergent methods. New York: Guilford Press.7
Hoff, D, L. & Mitchell, S. N. (2009). Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies. Journal of Educational Administration, 47(5): 652-665. doi 10.1108/09578230910981107
Kasi P. (2009). Research: What, Why and How?: A Treatise from Researchers to Researchers. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.
Keith, S. & Martin, E. M. (2005). Cyber-Bullying: Creating a Culture of Respect in a Cyber World. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 13(4): 224-228.
Kent, R. A. (1993). Marketing Research in Action. New York, NY: Routledge.
Kothari, C. R. (2005). Research methodology: Methods & techniques. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd.
Li, Q. (2006). Cyberbullying in Schools: A Research of Gender Differences. School Psychology International, 27(x): 1-14. doi: 10.1177/01430343060xxxxx
McFarland, E. G., & Kim T. K. (2006). Examination of the Shoulder: The Complete Guide. New York, NY: Thieme Medical Publishers.
Nansel, T. R. Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Journal of American Medical Association, 285(16), 2094-2096.
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