It goes without saying that life without good health and peace is of no relevance. The very purpose of living is defeated if there is an absence of good health that can sustain the need of life, learning, and future challenges. One of the challenges of modern times is deformities at the time of birth. According to Lannucci (2000), "Birth defects are abnormalities that are present in an infant at birth. They include visible, structural abnormalities as well as inherited disease" (P. 7).
Statement of research
The purpose of this study is to identify the elements and features of birth defects, and find solutions to this problem of health and physical deformities in future.
Significance and background of the study
In this modern day of information explosion and use of computer and internet, the case of growing problems of physical deformities at the time of birth is a cause of concern for the family, society, health departments, administrators, and planners not only in the United States but also in the entire world. This research demands the urgent need to examine the issues pragmatically and design a comprehensive plan for its solutions by involving all the stakeholders of family, society, health officials and researchers, and administrators. Using these comprehensive planning and strategy will enable us to find out the ways and means to mitigate the impact of the birth defects and ensure awareness for a quality health quotient level among the general public.
Characteristics of the research
As part of the description, interpretation and explanation of the research process, it has been decided to collect the sample data for an area which has remained ignored and isolated from the universal right of quality health management and protection system. The area selected for sample study is the region of Southern California which is mushrooming with the problems of poor health and homelessness. According to Mechanic and Tanner (2012), people are vulnerable and susceptible to the possible harm caused due to inefficient interaction resulting from developmental problems, personal incapacities, disadvantaged social status, and insufficient interpersonal networks. In this context, there is a need to think that birth defects due to poor health problems are external factors that result from our mental degradation of health machinery and inefficient approach of policy makers and planners.
Description of the area of research
The population of the southern Californian, which is chosen for this analysis, is 25000, especially the ghetto. This is located in the San Diego, El Centro and El Cajon area of California which is placed at the southern tip bordering Mexico. Of a total area of 411,048 square kilometers of the California, these areas cover around 278 square kilometers of the areas. The focus of the study is children’s birth defect, its causes and solutions, involvement of risk, preventive measures, budgetary assistance, and accountability of administrative and health machinery to implement the policy and program. In addition, special attention is being paid on the children below the age of 5 years, and among these, the most vulnerable lot is the female children who are generally ignored and discriminated. In the light of their poor plight of health, we cannot afford to have the two worlds where the children, especially the poor lot of the southern California, especially from the black racial origin, are divided on the basis of the race, poverty, and poor health. Although, we have enough resources that need to be judiciously managed to provide quality life to the poor lot, there is a lack of political, social, and financial will-power to root out this health menace.
Tentative questions of the research
The problems of birth defects highlight the need to understand the nuances and apply a concerted effort to deal with this issue. But, this raises many questions that deserve to be answered. Some of these questions are:
a) What do you understand by the term “birth defect?”
b) What are features and types of birth defects?
c) What are the possible causes of the birth defects?
d) What are the medical solutions for this problem?
e) What are the suggestions recommended by the doctors?
f) What are the procedures and investigations needed to root out this problem?
g) What kind of public awareness is needed to mitigate the impact of the birth defects?
h) What should be the role of the government administrative and health officials?
i) How should the government devise the special plan, policy, and program for the poor and female children?
j) What preventive measures are necessitated to counter this danger of birth defects?
Objective of the research
In view of these questions, the objective of the research is to find answers to these questions by collection some invaluable data, list out the problem areas, develop a strategy to deal with the problem areas of the birth defects, and finally define the process and procedures of effective management health hazard at the time of the birth.
Hypotheses of the research
It is being hypothesized that the efficient process of data collection, interpretation, analysis will pave the way finding out the root problems and take suitable measures to deal with the endangering challenges. All these analyses and preventive measures will play a key role to eradicating the problems of birth defects.
Method and procedure of data collection and analysis
In order to carry out the process of data collection, the specified region was divided in terms of class, economic status, race, education level, and health awareness quotient. Further, a questionnaire was prepared seek answers from each person or family. These questionnaires dealt with the nature of problems of birth defects, types of defects, and causes of defects. According to Sloss (1999), "Outcomes were classified into 24 categories - infant mortality, four related to prenatal development, and 19 for various of birth defects" (P. 29).With a view to ascertain the medical facts of problems, a qualified and competent medical professional accompanied during the data collection and helped in identifying the reasons of defects such as sensory, metabolic, degenerative, and nervous disorders. The collected data were sampled on various parameters of age, class, region, economic status, race, and gender, and finally analyzed in multiple permutation and combination of these defined parameters so as to arrive at the result flawlessly in future for finding the root reasons and the ultimate solutions of the stated problems.
Presentation of results
Based on the collection of data, analyses, results, some of the startling facts that came to the highlight are:
a) 15% of people below the age of 5 years had either genetic or chromosomal problems.
b) 30% pregnant women, especially from poor class and black did not undergo regular medical examination for any possible birth defects.
c) 70% of the women, who were detected to have birth defects problems, had either consumed alcohol either during or before pregnancy.
d) Body mass index (BMI) of the affected people were very low.
e) 80% of the affected people were from either poor economic background or the black origin.
f) Academic level of the affected people was low, and that resulted in lack of general and health awareness.
Suggestions for preventive measures
a) Medical department should carry the genetic or chromosomal analysis reports of every person and suggested health-oriented preventive measures in the initial stage.
b) Government, especially the health department, should make obligatory to carry out regular medical examination of all the pregnant women for any possible birth defects with special focus being on the poor and the black people.
c) Health awareness and motivation plan should be conducted for the pregnant women for desisting from consuming alcohol either during or before pregnancy.
d) The local administration should check up the body mass index of the every individual and arrange healthy and nutritious food for having a standard physical fitness level.
e) Government should envisage a special economic and health package in order to boost their level of health and economic status.
f) Health machinery should exploit the application of electronic and print media, conduct of seminar, workshop, awakening programs, banners, posters, flyers, and many more in order to create awareness among the common and weakwr section of the societies.
Administrative and budgetary research
All these analyses and their effective implementation will benefit the common people immensely. For this, the role of the administrative and financial department of the federal, state, and local government plays a key role in overcoming the problems of birth defects. Presently, the federal and the state government have earmarked 5% of their funds for the health management but now they should allocate 10% extra funds to the health department in their budget plan. If necessary, the administrative department should establish a monitoring agency to ensure the use of allotted funds to needy people, the poor and the black people, for creating an health infrastructure and awareness program. Furthermore, the government should plan to initiate an extensive research programs in future for the establishment of quality health infrastructures in the backward regions of the state and also for finding out the co-relation between race, economic status, and the birth defects.
Credentials of the researcher and associated personnel
For this research work on the problems of birth defects in a specified locality, I owe special thanks to all the persons, teachers, local authority, friends, family members for their constant support and patient guidance during the process of data collection, sampling, analysis and findings. In addition, I would like to extend my special thanks to my teacher and family members in helping me in accomplishing this research assignment. Without their support, it could not have been possible to successfully complete this research analysis on birth defects.
In the light of the aforesaid facts and analyses on the birth defects, , it can be, undoubtedly, assumed that poor health due to lack of public healthcare system is really an unjustifiable and unacceptable. Blaming the poor or the underprivileged sections of the society for this type of dysfunctional problems during the time of birth is not logical. It is to be believed that education, awareness, economic development, health infrastructure by the government will create a positive difference in their life. So, time has come for us to discuss positive elements and remove a sense of differences faced due to poor planning of health. So, let us build a society or a world where there is no birth effects due to poor health and poverty to make our life happy, progressive, honest, and prosperous in a true sense.
1. Lannucci, Lisa (2000). Birth Defects: Disease and People, New Jersey, USA: Enslow Publishers.
2. MedicineNet.com (24 April 2012.) Article: Birth Defects. Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/birth_defects/article.htm
3. Sloss M. Elizabeth (1999). Groundwater Recharge with Reclaimed Water: Birth Outcomes in Los Angeles County. Pennsylvania: RAND Corporation
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (16 April 2012.) National Center on Birth Defects and Development Disabilities Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/index.html
5. Stephens Stephanie (July 21, 2011.) Medicaid Waiver Good News for L.A.'s Homeless. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
6. Mechanic, David and Tanner, Jennifer (2012.) Vulnerable People, Groups, And Populations: Societal View. Retrieved from http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/26/5/1220.full
7. California Advocacy Groups (2009.) Health Access. Retrieved from http://www.health-access.org/item.asp?id=120
8. Susan M. Barrow, Nicole D. Laborde (2008). Invisible Mothers: Parenting by Homeless Women Separated from Their Children. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/742gu15730342t14/